in which, at which, on which與when/where的分別

in which, at which, on which與when/where的分別

 

which, when, where三者都是運用Relative clause(關係子句) /或叫Adjective Clause(定語子句) 時常用的conjunction(連接詞) 。但是,which及when/where是可以「有技巧地」互換使用。以下會透過3步理解來仔細解說有關技巧(每一步的理解都屬核心語法必要搞清部份,請耐心思考!)

 

Which是用來形容「物」的。所謂物,即是【非人】(Who及Whom是用來形容【人】的) 。所以「時間」、「地點」都可以被歸納為「物」。Which詞類屬性為Relative pronoun(關係代名詞)。

 

When只能用來形容「時間」;Where只能用來形容「地點」。When/Where詞類屬性為Relative Adverb(關係副詞)。

 

第一步理解:

Which作為Relative ‘pronoun’: 有吞掉noun(有時吞掉subject/有時吞掉object)的功能
例: The building is now my property. I bought the building ten years ago.
用第二句來形容第一句:
The building which I bought ten years ago is now my property. (子句的Object: the building 被吞了!)

 

例: The software is useful. The software helps you to organize such complicated data.
用第二句來形容第一句:
The software which helps you to organize such complicated data is useful. (子句的Subject: The software 被吞了!)

 

第二步理解:

When/where作為Relative ‘adverb’: 有吞掉adverbial(即prep+noun)的功能
例: The house is my Auntie’s. I am pointing at the house.
用第二句來形容第一句:
The house where I am pointing is my Auntie’s. (子句的Adverbial: at the house 被吞了!)

 

例: Summer is the time. People enjoy water sports in the summer!
用第二句來形容第一句:
Summer is the time when people enjoy water sports! (子句的Adverbial: in the summer 被吞了!)

 

例: Saturday is my beloved day. We begin to have a rest on Saturday.
用第二句來形容第一句:
Saturday is my beloved day when we begin to have a rest. (子句的Adverbial: on Saturday 被吞了!)

 

第三步理解:

因為「時間」、「地點」都是「物」,所以用which來代替where/when會有以下效果
上文: The house where I am pointing is my Auntie’s. (where吞掉 at the house)
可寫成: The house which I am pointing at is my Auntie’s. (which只吞掉the house)
所以 ‘at’ 在這裡要出現!而at可以放在which的前面【按此詳細可參考:Which, in which, where 用法】
因此:
The house where I am pointing is my Auntie’s.
=The house at which I am pointing is my auntie’s.

 

同理:
Summer is the time when people enjoy water sports.
=Summer is the time in which people enjoy water sports.

 

同樣道理:
Saturday is my beloved day when we begin to have a rest.
=Saturday is my beloved day on which we begin to have a rest.

 

最後給你一條proofread練習,值得思考一下:
The Star Ferry Building is the place where travelers catch their ferries at.
這句有什麼問題?

 

Ans:
這句是錯的,有3種正確改法:
1. The Star Ferry Building is the place which travelers catch their ferries at.
2. The Star Ferry Building is the place where travelers catch their ferries.
3. The Star Ferry Building is the place at which travelers catch their ferries.

 

如何學好英文的5個重要關鍵因素,學英文有【關連】從基礎到精通【按此】

7+3視覺英語Tomato Yip阿土老師
2008年開始教授IELTS課程
2016年,大學作客席講師教授翻譯技術
1999年開始教授香港高考英文